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DESCRIÇÃO E OBJETIVOS

Na Grécia Antiga, a máxima “conhece-te a ti mesmo” surgiu no panorama da filosofia ocidental e tem acompanhado o homem como pano de fundo do percurso filosófico universal, em busca de um conhecimento unificador de todas as coisas. A Filosofia da Cultura stricto sensu, tal como outras filosofias do genitivo, é um sinal da fragmentação do saber filosófico e da falência de uma visão da totalidade. Se, por um lado, emerge numa época marcada pelo descrédito da filosofia sistemática e especulativa, procura, por outro lado, e em reacção contra o avanço galopante do positivismo e a ramificação das ciências empíricas, recuperar da metafísica clássica o estatuto de saber fundamental.

É na Alemanha das primeiras décadas do século xx que a tensão entre crise da metafísica e crise das ciências se torna consciente, objecto de sombrios diagnósticos quanto ao declínio da civilização (Zivilization), mas, ao mesmo tempo, incentivo de diferentes propostas de refundação da ideia de Cultura (Kultur). O estudo desta época e de alguns textos dos seus protagonistas permitirá lançar luz sobre a nossa actualidade, nomeadamente, sobre o lugar da filosofia e a perenidade ou historicidade dos seus problemas, com particular incidência na Antropologia. O que diz o homem de si próprio? Na primeira metade do século XX, muitos foram os autores que ensaiaram respostas a essa pergunta. E ela continua a ter lugar no panorama filosófico contemporâneo e na investigação científica de primeira ordem.

Este grupo de leitura propõe analisar alguns fragmentos de obras que desenham o percurso do pensamento europeu na tentativa de aperfeiçoar uma resposta, ao longo deste período. Tal percurso começa com Simmel, teórico da Modernidade, que nela descortina a divergência trágica entre o avanço da cultura objectiva e a retracção da cultura subjectiva. Seguem-se Rickert, que identifica cultura com a ordem supra-individual dos valores e Weber na tentativa da definição de um conceito e de um método científico de estudo para a cultura. Heidegger explora a necessidade do estudo sobre a essência do ser e da existência, ou seja a Analítica do Dasein e a dissemelhança com a Antropologia, a Psicologia e a Biologia. Scheler vem estabelecer as características próprias do animal e as do ser humano, com objetivo de estabelecer uma fronteira entre ambos. Por seu lado, Groethuysen recupera a máxima “conhece-te a ti mesmo” e fazendo um percurso histórico da demanda em busca da melhor maneira de cumprir essa recomendação clássica, acaba por indicar um caminho que poderá ter contribuído para um estudo da personalidade, que Mounier vem transformar em “pessoalidade”, propondo-o como centro para o estudo do homem que ainda hoje se mantém em várias ciências como a Psicologia, a Medicina, a Sociologia, entre outras.

 

Língua de trabalho: Português

Organizadores: Prof. Adriana Veríssimo Serrão (adrianaserrao@letras.ulisboa.pt) e Mário Cardoso (mariocardoso@campus.ul.pt)

Para participar, contacte os organizadores por correio eletrónico. 

Quartas-feiras, às 17h30 (ver cronograma)

 

Cronograma

20 Janeiro 2021 (online – via Zoom)

  • Georg Simmel, “Vom Wesen der Kultur”. Trad. port.: Pasti, H. B. (2014). “Da essência da Cultura (1908) de Georg Simmel”. Ideias, 4, 249-261. Recuperado de aquí

3 Fevereiro 2021

  • Heinrich Rickert, Kulturwissenschaft und Naturwissenschaft (1899). Trad. cast.: M. García Morente, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1965

24 Fevereiro 2021

  • Max Weber, Wissenschaft als Beruf (1917). Trad. port: A ciência como vocação, na LusoSofia.

10 Março 2021

  • Martin Heidegger, Ser e Tempo (1927) – Primeiras páginas do capitulo 1: “A Exposição da Tarefa de Análise Preparatória do Dasein”

31 Março 2021

  • Max Scheler, A Situação do Homem no Cosmos (1928) – Primeiras páginas do capitulo 2: “Diferença Essencial entre o Homem e o Animal”

14 Abril 2021

  • Bernard Groethuysen, Antropologia Filosófica (1928) – Capitulo 9 “Perspectivas que Oferece o Desenvolvimento da Antropologia nos Tempos Modernos”

28 Abril 2021

  • Ernst Cassirer, “Introdução” da Filosofia das Formas Simbólicas (1923) ou o início de An Essay on Man (1944).

12 Maio 2021

  • Emmanuel Mounier, O Personalismo (1947) – Primeiras páginas do capitulo 1: “A Existência Encarnada”

 

 

Ricardo Mendoza-Canales

Praxis-CFUL, University of Lisbon

Inhabiting Utopia

15 December 2020, 18h00 (Lisbon Time — GMT+0)

Online seminar (Zoom link here)

 

Abstract

A distinctive feature of utopian narratives throughout history has been the close relationship between imagination and politics. From its first formulation in Plato’s Republic, utopias have been associated with imaginary and alternative conceptions of reality. Due to its both “out-of-place” and “out-of-time” character, utopia has been considered either an a-historical, chimerical and, therefore, unfeasible reality; or as an anticipation, a future task or a desirable aim towards which to orient transformative action. In either case, utopian narratives fulfill a social and political function, since they deal with representations of social structures, cultural forms, values, beliefs, and aesthetic ideals. In this spirit, and as I will develop in my paper, I will argue that “inhabiting utopia” exists through the performative appropriation of the relationship between imagination and reality: on the one hand, it is an appropriation because it is a type of embodied cognition; on the other hand, it is performative because the materialization of the imaginary is rendered by means of action. My conclusion is that inhabiting utopia is a manner of shaping reality that also encompasses a double ethical demand, both for liberation and for resistance: for resistance facing material and discursive hegemonic practices, and for liberation due to its emancipatory spirit.

 

 

Jeffrey Andrew Barash

University of Picardie – Jules Verne

Collective Memory, Social Imaginaries, and the Transformation of Political Mythology in the Age of the Mass Media

24 November 2020, 18h00 (Lisbon Time — GMT+0)

This session will take place via streaming (Zoom link here)

 

 

Abstract

Whatever structural similarities anthropologists might posit to typify and systematize the myths that have been narrated since time immemorial, I will insist in this talk on the appearance over the past decades of a novel kind of political myth adapted to a specifically modern significance and function.  How might we account for this novel function of political myth in the contemporary world?  According to my interpretation, the contemporary singularity of its meaning and function depends on mutations on a global scale in the modes of collective experience; in the ways in which experience communicated among vast groups is collectively remembered and imaginatively deployed.  This talk will investigate these mutations in collective modes of experience and remembrance, which may be traced to the remarkable influence of the mass media that, over the past century and a half, have relentlessly accelerated their communicative capacity and extended their global reach.

 

 

Gianfranco Casuso

Pontifical Catholic University of Peru

Socio-Epistemic Pathologies. The Double Dimension of Social Criticism and the Problem of Asymptomaticity

10 November 2020, 18h00 (Lisbon Time – GMT+0)

This session will take place via streaming (Zoom link here)

 

Abstract

It is common to affirm – and that is what Honneth believes that Critical Theory has done since its origins – that the indicator that can give us the clue that a social situation hides pathological features is suffering – not just that of members of social groups easily identifiable as vulnerable or disadvantaged, but potentially all people to varying degrees. Be that as it may, suffering should be a kind of “symptom” of social pathology. However, and here is where the difficulties begin, immediately appealing to the individual experience of suffering does not necessarily allow us to get out of the trap, because the problem lies in that the dual pathological condition of society is so powerful that under a veil of normality it even blocks the emergence of every possible symptom. In my talk, I will try to delve into this problematic link between suffering and social pathology as developed by Honneth, both from his own Hegelian reading of a deficit of rationality, and from Adorno’s idea of a sick normality. This will be done against the background of the less worked phenomenon of social asymptomaticity.

 

 

Oliver Marchart

University of Vienna

Always Ontologize! The Political Thinking of Antagonism

3 November 2020, 18h00 (Lisbon Time – GMT+0)

This session will take place via streaming (Zoom link here)

 

Abstract

Presuppositions about the nature of social being are implied by any kind of social research – sometimes openly, but most often silently. Any political interpretation, as William Connolly once argued, invokes a set of ontological assumptions about the very nature of the social bond. Social analysis, therefore, warrants interpretations, not only of particular social phenomena, but of the nature of social being in general: of being-qua-being. Every inquiry into the social world can thus be referred back, in the last instance, to a very simple question: ‘what’s going on with Being?’ (Gianni Vattimo). The wager of my presentation will be that something political is going on with Being. More than that: Being is political, and the name of the political is antagonism. It is the ineradicably antagonistic nature of social being that accounts for the disturbances and asymmetries of the social: the conflicts, the power discrepancies, the relations of subordination and oppression. A case will be made that thinking, as a collective and conflictual practice, needs to take account of antagonism at the ground of being.

 

 

 

Tamara Caraus

Praxis-CFUL / University of Lisbon

Marx’s Radical Cosmopolitics

27 October 2020, 18h00 (Lisbon Time – GMT+0)

Due to the current health restrictions, this session will take place entirely via Zoom Follow this link

Meeting ID: 884 7169 1230

Password: 746274

 

Abstract

“The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country” says the Communist Manifesto, the same text which states that “The working men have no country” and ends with the famous call “The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!”. The ‘bourgeois cosmopolitanism’ was the object of critique in different texts authored by Marx (and Engels). Thus, Marx underlined that “political economy displays a cosmopolitan, universal energy which overthrows every restriction and bond, but comes out in its complete cynicism” (Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844) and that “free competition and world trade gave birth to hypocritical cosmopolitanism and the notion of man”(German Ideology). However, Marx’s critique of ‘bourgeois cosmopolitanism’ was not formulated from a local or national perspective, but from the perspective of a  radical cosmopolitics whose main elements, as this presentation argues, could be detected in (i) the immanent critique of “bourgeois cosmopolitanism” or of globalised capitalism, (ii) in the ‘ruthless criticism of everything existing’ or in the emancipatory and transformational role of Marx’s radical  critique, (iii) in the proletariat as a cosmopolitical agency from below, (iv) in the missing theory of state in Marx’s oeuvre, (v) in the stake on the transformation of consciousness and self-emancipation, and (vi) in Marx’s unavoidable  humanism. In this radical cosmopolitics, cosmopolitan and communist horizons tend to become one, and the radical cosmo-communist politics appears as the real stake of struggle against global injustice, both in Marx’s time and now.

 

 

Reading Group within the Praxis-CFUL activities

Working language: English

Convener: Tamara Caraus (tcaraus@letras.ulisboa.pt)

 

Argument: Currently, visibility and the fact of being visible acquire an unprecedented importance: ‘views’ on social media are becoming a source of self-esteem and self-respect for the users, the increasing number of ‘views’ acquires economic value, and the notions such as ‘economy of attention’ are being advanced to capture the new reality of economics. Apart from social media, the proliferation of reality shows display a need to be seen of ‘ordinary’ persons, as though striving to have the ‘15 minutes of fame’ (anticipated by Andy Warhol). Concomitantly, the main political stake of political actions now is to make the injustice visible. In the logic of protest movements and ‘occupations’, if we are to register and respond rightly to conditions of suffering and injustice, these conditions must be visible. The different needs of being visible generate some puzzling questions concerning ethics and politics of visibility: Is the fact of being visible a kind of ontological guarantee of person’s being?  If we inhabit a world in which visibility is shaped by structures of domination, and in which individuals’ capacities for ethical perception and judgment are often substantially compromised by the existent power, do those who are less visible have less ‘being’? Is the contemporary situation a tragicomic reversal of the Benthamic-Orwellian notion of the panopticon society in which we are (potentially) observed all the time and have no place to hide from the omnipresent gaze of the Power, since today anxiety arises from the prospect of not being seen?  Can the maxim ‘I think, therefore I am’ be replaced by “I am looked at, therefore I am?’, etc. In order to answer these questions, the proposed Reading Group aims to go back to the authors who (attempted to) identify Being with appearing (Heidegger and Arendt), examined the ‘dialectics’ of visible and invisible (Merleau-Ponty), described the need for the Other’s gaze serving as the guarantee of the subject’s being (Lacan), defined politics as re-distribution of the sensible and the visible (Ranciere) and offered a critique of the ‘pornographic age’ (Badiou).

 

 

Meetings& Readings:

Session I – 27 February 2020: Martin Heidegger, Introduction to Metaphysics, Yale University Press (translation by Gregory Fried and Richard Polt), Chapter 4, pp. 98 – 210.

Session II –  15 October 2020: Hannah Arendt, The Life of the Mind, Harcourt, New York and London, 1978 (volume 1 and 2 combined), Vol. 1 Chapter I “Appearances” and Chapter II “Mental Activities in a World of Appearances”, pp. 19-129.

Session III – 29 October 2020:  Maurice Merleau-Ponty, The Visible and the Invisible (Edited by Claude Lefort, translated By Alphonso L. Ngis) Northwestern University Press, 1968; Michel Henry, Seeing The Invisible.(Translated by Scott Davidson), Continuum 2009, p. 5-12.

Session IV – 12 November 2020: Jacques Lacan, “Of The Gaze As Objet Petit a” In The Seminars of Jacques Lacan, Book XI: The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, translated by Alan Sheridan) Norton, 1981, pp. 67 – 123.

Session V – 26 November 2020: Jacques Ranciere, Disagreement (translation by Julie Rose), University of Minnesota Press, 1999.

Session VI – 10 December 2020: Alain Badiou, The Pornographic Age (translated by A. J. Bartlett, J. Clemens) Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.

Session VII:  14 January 2021: Round-Up meeting: Is an Ethics and Politics of Visibility Possible?  Visibility versus Recognition?

 

Some other readings of these and other authors may be added, according to the development of the theme from the suggested titles.

 

Steven Gouveia

University of Minho

Altruísmo eficaz: Uma análise crítica

20 October 2020, 18h00

Update: The session will take place entirely via Zoom. Here the link

ID Meeting: 820 4735 9419

Password: 424573

 

Abstract

Imagine a seguinte situação: está a passear tranquilamente por Lisboa e decide apanhar o metro. Aguardando que o mesmo chegue, repara que uma senhora idosa que por ali passava tinha acabado de cair na linha do metro. Pior que isso, o metro vai chegar em um minuto. Salvar a senhora é possível, mas terá de sair do seu conforto para a salvar de ser atropelada. Dado que é não é uma pessoa moralmente repreensível, percebe que o correcto a fazer é socorrer a senhora e decide, assim, levantar-se para a auxiliar a subir para a plataforma do metro e garantir a sua segurança. E se soubesse que pode salvar muito mais pessoas do que apenas nesta situação particular, sem perder nada de moralmente significativo, mas somente alterando algumas atitudes da sua vida? Nesta palestra, iremos discutir um conjunto de ideias com a denominação de “Altruísmo Eficaz”, uma abordagem baseada no pensamento de Peter Singer, um dos intelectuais mais influentes da actualidade. Analisaremos os principiais pressupostos, as suas variadas aplicações (e.g. pobreza, ética animal, caridade) assim como as suas principias críticas e objeções, concluindo que estas parecem mais promissoras se aplicadas a uma versão “forte” do Altruísmo Eficaz, acabando por defender que uma defesa “fraca” do mesmo poderá ser pragmaticamente mais viável.

 

Special Series: Global Pandemic: Reflections on Side Effects #4

Reading Group Session

Leitura e discussão do texto de Martina Löw: “Summary View of the Constitution of Space”, em: The Sociology of Space. Materiality, Social Structures, and Action. London & New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2016, pp. 188-193.

26 May 2020, 18:00 h

Via Zoom